A new influx of sea rafted pumice reached the eastern coast of Australia in October 2002, approximately 1 year after a felsic, shallow marine explosive eruption at a previously unknown volcano (0403 091) along the Tofua volcanic arc (Tonga). The eruption produced floating pumice rafts that first became stranded in Fiji in November 2001, approximately I month after the eruption. Strandings of sea rafted pumice along shorelines have been the only record of products from this submarine explosive eruption at the remote, submerged volcano. Computed drift trajectories of the sea rafted pumice using numerical models of southwest Pacific surface wind fields and ocean currents indicate two cyclonic systems disturbed the drift of pumice to eastern Australia, as well as the importance of the combined wave and direct wind effect on pumice trajectory. Pumice became stranded along at least two thirds (>2000 km) of the coastline of eastern Australia, being deposited on beaches during a sustained period of fresh onshore winds. Typical amounts of pumice initially stranded on beaches were 500 4000 individual clasts per in, and a minimum volume estimate of pumice that arrived to eastern Australia is 1.25 x 10(5) m(3). Pumice was beached below maximum tidal/storm surge levels and was quickly reworked back into the ocean, such that the concentration of beached pumice rapidly dissipated within weeks of the initial stranding, and little record of this stranding event now exists. Most stranded pumice clasts ranged in size from 2 to 5 cm in diameter; the largest measured clasts were 10 cm in Australia and 20 cm in Fiji. The pumice has a low phenocryst content (3500 km) and period of pumice floatation (greater than or equal to1 year), confirm the importance of sea rafted pumice as a long distance dispersal mechanism for marine organisms including marine pests and harmful invasive species. Billions of individual rafting pumice clasts can be generated in a single small volume eruption, such as observed here, and the geological implications for the transport of sessile taxa over large distances are significant.
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The areolas around the nipple getting darker and often bigger is a classic early sign of pregnancy and you may also get tiny bumps on the areolas which are known as Montgomery Tubercules. They look a bit like goose bumps, but are actually hard working glands producing oils to lubricate your nipples in preparation for breastfeeding.
A classic first sign of pregnancy around two to three weeks after conception is the need to urinate more often. This is triggered by hormones, an increasingly effective kidney cleansing action and your growing uterus pressing on the bladder. Best stock up on loo paper because this will probably last the whole of the first trimester and return in the third.
Oh boy there is nothing quite like the all over body tiredness that can affect women in the early weeks of pregnancy.
Basically your pregnant body is working so hard to create and maintain your baby life support system that fatigue is a totally unsurprising first sign of pregnancy.
Your hormone levels are up, you producing more blood and pumping it harder than ever, your metabolism is burning energy even when you are resting and all added together it spells TIRED.
Don worry, it gets better in the second trimester when the placenta is fully prepared and you got used to the soaring hormones.
Unlike the movies, when every single pregnant woman seems to have morning sickness, nausea does not blight everyone. And it not confined to mornings. It usually kicks in around week six so isn one of the very first signs of pregnancy and can last throughout the nine months, but usually trails off in the second trimester.
A sudden craving for tomatoes, or anything you never craved before, can be a tell tale early sign of pregnancy. So can a sudden distaste of something you previously enjoyed (Saturday night curry? Coffee?). You could also have an increased awareness of smells which can be unpleasant if you work in an office where several perfumes vie for attention.